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Who Built the Berlin Wall?

by | Mar 7, 2024 | Cold War Tour Berlin

The Berlin Wall, a symbol of division and Cold War era tensions, was built by the German Democratic Republic (GDR), commonly known as East Germany. Construction of the wall began on August 13, 1961, and it stood for nearly three decades until it was dismantled in 1989.

Reasons behind the Construction of the Berlin Wall

The main purpose of the Berlin Wall was to prevent mass emigration from East Germany to West Germany. The GDR government claimed that the wall was built to protect its citizens from the influence of Western capitalism and imperialism. However, the wall primarily served as a means to curb the emigration of skilled workers and professionals from the East to the more prosperous West.

The Construction Process

The construction of the Berlin Wall involved the efforts of various state institutions, including the GDR’s Ministry for State Security, also known as the Stasi, and the Border Troops. The wall comprised concrete segments, barbed wire fencing, watchtowers, and anti-vehicle trenches.

The initial phase of the construction involved the installation of barbed wire, which hastily divided the city of Berlin overnight. Later, concrete elements were added to reinforce the barrier.

Key Features of the Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall spanned approximately 155 kilometers (96 miles), encircling West Berlin and separating it from surrounding East Germany. It consisted of two parallel walls, with a “death strip” in between. The death strip was a heavily fortified area to prevent any attempts to breach the wall.

The wall was equipped with guard towers where armed soldiers were stationed. They were instructed to shoot anyone attempting to cross from East to West without authorization.

Life at the Berlin Wall

The construction of the Berlin Wall had profound implications for the residents of both East and West Berlin. Families and friends were separated, causing emotional distress and anguish. Many East Berliners found themselves trapped within the boundaries of the wall, with limited opportunities for travel or contact with the outside world.

Life was especially challenging for those living in close proximity to the wall. Buildings that once offered a view of the western part of the city were rendered useless due to their location. No Man’s Land, the area between the walls, was filled with obstacles and tripwires, making it almost impossible for anyone to escape.

The Fall of the Berlin Wall

Over time, public dissent against the Berlin Wall grew, both domestically and internationally. In the late 1980s, widespread protests erupted in East Germany, calling for political change and the reunification of Germany.

On November 9, 1989, the East German government issued a statement allowing East Berliners to make the cross-border transit. This announcement led to an overwhelming surge of people flocking to the wall, dismantling it with their own hands. The wall, which stood as a symbol of division, became a symbol of unity and triumph over oppression.


The Berlin Wall, constructed by the German Democratic Republic, was a physical manifestation of the ideological and political division between East and West during the Cold War. Its primary purpose was to prevent emigration from East Germany to West Germany. It stood as a stark reminder of the restrictions placed on personal freedom and the human cost of political conflicts. The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 marked a significant turning point in history, symbolizing the end of the Cold War and the reunification of Germany.

Who Built the Berlin Wall?