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Which Side of the Berlin Wall was Communist?

by | Mar 7, 2024 | Cold War Tour Berlin

When talking about the Berlin Wall, it’s crucial to understand that it was built to separate East Berlin (controlled by the Soviet Union) from West Berlin (controlled by the United States, United Kingdom, and France) during the Cold War. This physical barrier not only divided the city but also represented the ideological and political divide between communism and democracy. Let’s take a closer look at which side of the Berlin Wall was communist.

The Berlin Wall: A Brief History

The construction of the Berlin Wall began on August 13, 1961, as a response to a steady flow of emigration from East to West Berlin. Thousands of East Germans sought a better life in the more prosperous West, which caused significant political and economic challenges for the Soviet-controlled East German government.

Communist Control Over East Berlin

East Berlin, along with the entire German Democratic Republic (GDR), was heavily influenced by the Soviet Union and embraced communist ideology. The ruling Socialist Unity Party (SED) exercised authoritarian control over the government, suppressing political opposition and restricting personal freedoms.

The Iron Curtain

The Berlin Wall was essentially an extension of the “Iron Curtain” that divided Europe during the Cold War. This symbolic and physical barrier was a stark representation of the ideological division between communism and capitalism.

Dividing Berlin: The Wall’s Placement

The Berlin Wall didn’t run exactly along the border between East and West Berlin. Instead, it encircled West Berlin, effectively cutting it off from the surrounding East German territory. This placement ensured that East German authorities could better control emigration attempts.

East Side: Communist-Controlled

The eastern side of the Berlin Wall, which included East Berlin, was under the control of the Soviet Union and its communist allies. This part of the city was characterized by Soviet-style architecture, government-controlled industries, and a planned economy.

West Side: Democratic Allies

The western side of the Berlin Wall, which included West Berlin, was overseen by the United States, the United Kingdom, and France. This region operated under democratic principles, promoting personal freedoms, market economies, and individual rights.

Life on Each Side of the Wall

The Berlin Wall represented more than just a physical barrier; it created a stark contrast in living conditions and opportunities between East and West Berlin.

East Berlin: Communist Lifestyle

Life in East Berlin revolved around communist ideals. The government controlled many aspects of daily life, including education, jobs, housing, and media. Personal freedoms were limited, and dissent against the regime was harshly punished.

West Berlin: Democratic Prosperity

West Berlin enjoyed more economic prosperity and personal freedoms. The region benefited from significant support from the democratic allies, resulting in a higher standard of living, cultural diversity, and access to global markets.

The Fall of the Berlin Wall

After nearly three decades of division, the Berlin Wall finally fell on November 9, 1989. This event marked a crucial turning point in history and was largely driven by grassroots movements advocating for reunification and democratic reforms.

Reunified Berlin

Following the fall of the Berlin Wall, East and West Germany reunified on October 3, 1990. Berlin once again became the capital of a united Germany, symbolizing the end of the Cold War era.


The Berlin Wall was a physical and ideological divide, separating communism in East Berlin from democracy in West Berlin. The communist-controlled side of the wall, including East Berlin, was influenced by the Soviet Union and featured limited personal freedoms, planned economies, and strict governmental control. On the other hand, West Berlin, overseen by democratic allies, offered more personal liberties, market economies, and higher living standards.

Understanding the history and significance of the Berlin Wall is essential for comprehending the impact it had on the lives of people living on either side. The fall of the wall represented much more than the reunification of Germany; it symbolized the triumph of democracy over communism.

Which Side of the Berlin Wall was Communist?